Well, I’m a bit considering you like someone new to networking and my answer would be as simple as that. See, Data! Water flows from a source to destiny via a pipeline, Apparently, data flows through a source and destiny via cables!
Imagine your Home drainage system, only pipes, and plumbings throughout your house, if that applies to network and data flowing through a small interconnected network is a LAN ( local area network).
Like your city’s drainage system there is WAN ( wide area network).
Let’s consider you’ve sent a parcel from LA to your cousin who’s in another country via FedEx courier. FedEx then verifies the package, weighs it, approves it, packs it, A small sticker with details and bar code is added, shipped, delivered.
The same is with a data packet. Any data packet you send goes through all the phases like a FedEx parcel before it gets delivered.
How are your data packets exactly travelling to the destiny? Who’s taking them? What all devices does your packet meet before actually arriving at the destiny? (like your FedEx parcel goes to many hubs before delivery) . What’s there in the packet? What kind of packet it is? (like FedEx takes- edible/non-edible etc).
There’s lot many things happening while your one single packet ( 4 bytes) travel from your pc to a website (webserver actually) / another pc. Well, networking is all about this parcel and delivery stuff. You’ll learn what happens to your data, how it is sent over Internet, kinds of servers, routers, switches, hubs. Finally you could build and manage your own network for your own office 😉
And your next part of question like what’s HTTP, server, client, DNS, DHCP etc etc.. I’m sorry to say but you asked each of a different thing, they’re exactly having one thing in common that’s NETWORKING!
Briefly they’re all the equipment and protocols used in FedEx like, FedEx classifies a parcel on many categories like this is asian, American, next which country, which type of parcel, it’s priority etc etc etc etc. Same things are with the things above.
In brief description of what you asked in my own way :p
HTTP : The actual parcel
Server: A city’s / Area’s FedEx office.
Client : who uses FedEx service.
DNS: barcode on the parcel
DHCP: assigns each client a username / gives an id number for using their service.
PROXY : using someone else’s address to recieve/send a parcel from whom you can receive secretly.
Port – I got no idea on how to explain related to FedEx parcel 🙁 Really Sorry!
In career point of view – Doing networking and having a good deep knowledge in it will make you a network administrator for a company or a network engineer or if you’re too good you can be much more with high hourly wage 😉